Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental health condition triggered by a traumatic event, causing flashbacks, nightmares, and physical symptoms such as chronic pain.

The basics

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that people develop after going through or witnessing a traumatic event. Trauma can include things like military combat, sexual assault, physical assault, natural disasters, or accidents. PTSD can occur immediately after the event, or it can take weeks, months, or even years before symptoms start to show.

PTSD can affect anyone who has experienced a traumatic event, regardless of age, gender or background. It is estimated that around 7-8% of the population will develop PTSD at some point in their lives. Symptoms of PTSD can include intense flashbacks, nightmares, feelings of guilt, anxiety, and depression. These symptoms can be incredibly distressing and can significantly impact a person's quality of life. However, with the right treatment and support, many people are able to manage their PTSD symptoms and go on to live fulfilling lives.

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The symptoms of PTSD can vary from person to person but typically fall into four categories: intrusion, avoidance, negative alterations in cognition and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity. Symptoms can range from mild to severe and may come and go over time. Some common symptoms of PTSD include:

  • Intrusive thoughts or memories of the traumatic event
  • Nightmares or flashbacks
  • Avoidance of triggers that remind the person of the trauma
  • Feelings of detachment or estrangement from others
  • Negative changes in mood, such as depression or anxiety
  • Irritability, anger, or hypervigilance
  • Difficulty sleeping or concentrating
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Therapies & treatments

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of therapy that is commonly used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During CBT sessions, the therapist works with the individual to identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to PTSD symptoms. The therapist may use techniques such as exposure therapy, which involves gradually exposing the individual to the traumatic memory in a safe and controlled environment, or cognitive restructuring, which involves challenging and changing negative beliefs about the self, others, and the world. CBT for PTSD can help individuals develop coping strategies and problem-solving skills, reduce avoidance behaviors, and improve their overall functioning and quality of life. CBT for PTSD is often used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan that may include medication and other therapies, depending on the individual's needs and goals.

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of psychotherapy that is used to help individuals process and heal from traumatic experiences. During an EMDR session, the therapist guides the individual through a series of eye movements, sounds, or taps, while they recall the traumatic event. This process helps the individual to process the trauma and reduce the associated distress, allowing them to create more adaptive beliefs and behaviors. EMDR has been shown to be effective in treating PTSD and other trauma-related disorders, and is often used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan that includes other therapies and medications as needed.

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a form of therapy that has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of trauma and promoting overall well-being. MBSR involves a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and gentle yoga, and helps individuals focus on the present moment and reduce stress and anxiety associated with traumatic experiences. During MBSR sessions, individuals learn to become more aware of their thoughts, emotions, and physical sensations, and to develop a non-judgmental and accepting attitude towards them. MBSR can help individuals develop a greater sense of control over their thoughts and emotions, reduce avoidance behaviors, and improve their overall coping skills. MBSR is often used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for trauma that may include other therapies and medication as needed.

Group Therapy

Group therapy is a type of psychotherapy that involves a small group of individuals who meet regularly to discuss their experiences and feelings related to PTSD. Group therapy for PTSD provides a supportive and non-judgmental environment where individuals can share their experiences and receive feedback from others who have gone through similar experiences. In a group therapy setting, individuals can learn coping skills, build resilience, and improve their social skills. Group therapy also provides a sense of community and validation, which can help individuals feel less isolated and alone. Research has shown that group therapy can be effective in reducing PTSD symptoms, improving social functioning, and enhancing overall well-being in individuals with PTSD.



Certain types of antidepressants, such as SSRIs and SNRIs, can help reduce anxiety symptoms in individuals with chronic pain. These medications work by altering the levels of certain chemicals in the brain that affect mood and anxiety.


Beta-blockers, such as propranolol, can help reduce physical symptoms of anxiety, such as heart palpitations and sweating.


Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam and clonazepam, are a type of sedative medication that can be used to treat anxiety associated with chronic pain. However, they are often prescribed with caution due to their potential for dependence and addiction.


Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant medication that is often used to treat neuropathic pain, but it can also help reduce anxiety symptoms in individuals with chronic pain.

Tricyclic antidepressants

Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline and nortriptyline, can help reduce anxiety symptoms as well as provide pain relief.

Atypical antipsychotics

Atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine and quetiapine, may be used to treat anxiety associated with chronic pain. They are used particularly in individuals with a history of trauma associated with sleeping difficulties who have not responded to other medications.

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Self-care strategies

Seeking Support

PTSD can feel isolating, so it's important to seek support from friends, family, or a mental health professional. Support groups, therapy, or counseling can also be helpful in building a support system and connecting with others who have similar experiences.


Exercise can be an effective way to manage symptoms of PTSD, such as anxiety and depression. Regular exercise, such as running, walking, or yoga, can help to release tension, improve mood, and promote overall health and wellbeing.

Relaxation Techniques

Practicing relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, meditation, or progressive muscle relaxation, can help to reduce anxiety and stress. These techniques can be done anywhere and anytime, and can be particularly helpful in managing anxiety or panic attacks.

Sleep Hygiene

Establishing a regular sleep routine can improve sleep quality and help to reduce symptoms of PTSD. This involves turning off electronic devices before bed, creating a relaxing sleep environment, and avoiding caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol before bedtime.


Eating a healthy and balanced diet can help to reduce inflammation, support immune function, and aid in weight management. It is important to reduce processed and refined foods, and to increase the intake of fruits and vegetables. In addition, limiting caffeine and alcohol intake can also help to manage symptoms of PTSD.

Creative Expression

Engaging in creative expression, such as writing, painting, or music, can be a helpful way to manage emotions and reduce stress. These activities can be done alone or in groups, and can be a way to connect with others who have similar interests.


Mindfulness is a practice that involves focusing on the present moment, without judgment or distraction. Mindfulness meditation or other mindfulness-based practices, such as yoga or tai chi, can help to reduce anxiety, improve mood, and promote overall wellbeing.

Avoid Triggers

Avoiding triggers, such as loud noises or crowds, can help to reduce symptoms of PTSD. It may also be helpful to limit exposure to media that may be triggering, such as news stories or social media.

Time Management

Managing time effectively can help to reduce stress and improve overall wellbeing. This may involve setting realistic goals and priorities, delegating tasks when possible, and creating a schedule that allows for relaxation and self-care activities.


Practicing self-compassion involves treating oneself with kindness and understanding, rather than criticism or judgment. This can involve reframing negative self-talk, practicing self-care activities, and seeking support when needed.

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